Abstract and key points
- Aromatherapy involves the controlled use of aromatic essential plant oils.
- Weak evidence is available to indicate that aromatherapy can improve overall quality of life; may be of potential benefit for physical problems (pain or fatigue), psychological problems (anxiety, depression, sleep).
- There is no strong evidence for long-term aromatherapy effects (after several weeks).
- Aromatherapy is generally safe; the greatest risks involve the consumption of larger amounts of essential oil or the application of essential oils to the skin, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis.
Aromatherapy, also called essential or volatile oil therapy, entails the controlled use of essential oils that have been extracted from a variety of plant sources. Therapy is usually given via massage, inhalation or a foot- or full-body bath.
Claims of benefits for cancer patients include reduced anxiety levels and relief of emotional stress, pain, muscular tension and fatigue. Claims for the effect of certain oils range from ‘restoring harmony to the energy’ of the body, altering mood and improving overall health, to more specific claims such as having anticonvulsive and spasmolytic properties.
The latest systematic review (2009) on the topic, which included six randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, concluded that although there is no long-lasting effect of aromatherapy massage, short-term improvements can be reported for general wellbeing, anxiety and depression up to eight weeks after treatment. Evidence from an additional 14 randomised and non-randomised clinical trials, of varying methodological quality is contradictory; more consistent research is needed to assess the long-term effects of aromatherapy for people with cancer.
Although essential oils have generally shown minimal adverse effects, when used in appropriate dilutions, allergic reactions can occur with all oils. Repeated topical administration of lavender and tea tree oil has been associated with reversible prepubertal gynecomastia, consequently there may be issues for cancer patients with oestrogen-dependant tumours.
CitationHelen Seers, Katja Boehm, CAM-Cancer Consortium. Aromatherapy [online document]. http://cam-cancer.org/The-Summaries/Herbal-products/Aromatherapy. December 5, 2015.
Summary fully revised and updated in December 2015 by Helen Seers.
Last updated in September 2013 by Katja Boehm.
Summary fully revised and updated in June 2012 by Katja Boehm.
Summary first published in March 2011, authored by Katja Boehm and Thomas Ostermann.
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