Vitamin E

Abstract and key points
  • Vitamin E is a generic term encompassing different chemical compounds, each having a different metabolism and biological activity.
  • Vitamin E compounds are fat-soluble antioxidants and some of them might have additional presumed anticancer properties.
  • As an adjunct to conventional anticancer therapy, vitamin E might reduce side effects (i.e. oral mucositis, hand-foot-syndrome and peripheral neurotoxicity).
  • No clinical trials describing the use of vitamin E monotherapy as an anticancer treatment have been published.
  • Vitamin E is considered to have a very low toxicity, and is generally well-tolerated in low doses.

Vitamin E is a generic term encompassing natural (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol, and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) and synthetic (all-rac-alpha-tocopherol) forms, and the esters thereof. The role of some forms of vitamin E in cancer prevention and therapy has been proposed.

This summary focuses on vitamin E during cancer, i.e. when used as an anticancer agent or to alleviate the adverse events of cancer treatments. Vitamin E in the prevention of cancer is not covered by this summary.

No clinical trials describing the use of vitamin E monotherapy as an anticancer treatment have been published. The available peer-reviewed clinical literature describes the use of alpha-tocopherol, all-rac-alpha-tocopherol, and tocotrienol as components of multivitamin regimens or mixtures of micronutrients, in combination with non-cancer drugs, or as adjuncts to conventional chemotherapy or radiation. In 5 randomized, placebo-controlled studies in adults and children, it was found that topical vitamin E might prevent oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In five randomized, controlled or placebo-controlled clinical studies a decrease of the incidence and severity of peripheral neurotoxicity induced by taxanes or platinum-based chemotherapy by alpha-tocopherol was found, but this finding was not confirmed in two other randomized, placebo-controlled studies.Vitamin E is considered to have a very low toxicity, and is generally well-tolerated. However, special consideration should be given when high doses of alpha-tocopherol are administered to cardiovascular disease patients or individuals taking anticoagulant therapy (e.g., warfarin), and to those with vitamin-K-related clotting disorders. Non-healthy patients should not take daily doses of 400 IU or higher. Little information is available on the adverse events of other forms of vitamin E.


Luc Geeraert, CAM Cancer Consortium. Vitamin E during cancer treatment [online document], September 30, 2015.

Document history

Summary updated in September 2015 by Luc Geeraert
Summary fully revised and updated in July 2013 by Luc Geeraert
Summary first published in August 2011, authored by Luc Geeraert

What is it?


Natural Vitamin E includes eight chemical forms (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol, and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol), which have different metabolism and biopotency in vivo1,2. Alpha-tocopherol (d-alpha-tocopherol or RRR-alpha-tocopherol) is considered the biologically most important form of vitamin E. The synthetic form of vitamin E is known as all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (dl-alpha-tocopherol). Often commercial supplements of synthetic (all-rac-alpha-tocopherol) or natural (alpha-tocopherol) vitamin E contain the vitamin as an acetate or succinate ester.


Vitamin E is fat-soluble and can be found in a wealth of food sources, e.g., green leafy vegetables, whole grains, nuts and seeds, wheat germ, eggs, and in plant oils (especially oils derived from safflower, sunflower, cottonseed, and palm)3,4. The ratios of the different chemical forms of vitamin E depend on the food source.

Commercial supplements contain vitamin E derived from natural sources or synthetic vitamin E. Supplements derived from natural sources contain only one chemical form of vitamin E, most often alpha-tocopherol, or a mixture of tocopherols and even tocotrienols. Synthetic preparations contain exclusively all-rac-alpha-tocopherol. Often the vitamin E in supplements has been esterified (acetate or succinate ester) to prevent its oxidation by air oxygen.

Application and dosage

The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg per day for alpha-tocopherol, an amount which is easily met by dietary sources, and 30 mg per day for synthetic all-rac-alpha-tocopherol5. The upper limit for intake is 1,000 mg per day. Very often, the dosage of vitamin E is given in international units (IU) referring to the activity in the rat resorption-gestation test: 1 mg is equivalent to 1.49 IU of natural alpha-tocopherol or 2.22 IU of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol. It is important to note that the different chemical forms of vitamin E might have different biological functions and that activity measurements based on the rat resorption-gestation test are indicative for activity in only one biological role.

Vitamin E supplements are taken as capsules, with a typical dose being 400 IU per day, which is above the recommended daily allowance. Vitamin E is also an ingredient in many multivitamin-mineral supplements.

Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels are saturable; a dose of approximately 800 IU is sufficient to achieve the upper limit2. In healthy subjects, the alpha-tocopherol concentration cannot be increased beyond two to three times the normal one, irrespective of the amount supplied or the duration of supplementation6.


Vitamin E was discovered in 1922 as a micronutrient necessary for reproduction in female rats7. Since, it has been proposed to have numerous biological functions in humans, though its essential functions are still not understood6. Vitamin E deficiency due to dietary limitations has not been established.

Most research has focused on the antioxidant properties of vitamin E. Being an antioxidant, it was assumed that the vitamin might be beneficial against chronic diseases with oxidative stress components, including cancer2.

Claims of efficacy / Mechanism(s) of action / Alleged indication(s)

Vitamin E, in all its chemical forms, is primarily considered a fat-soluble antioxidant2,8. It was found to prevent lipid peroxidation and other radical-driven oxidative events in lipophilic compartments (e.g., cell membranes).

Moreover, vitamin E has activities beyond its antioxidant properties that might be more important to understand its biological roles1,2. Although various mechanisms of action have been proposed, the mechanisms leading to the putative anticancer effects of (some chemical forms of) vitamin E have not been conclusively described.

In vitro and animal studies showed limited or no evidence for an anticancer effect of alpha-tocopherol, while gamma-tocopherol, the succinate ester of alpha-tocopherol, and tocotrienols were found to be more promising vitamin E forms in cancer1,3,9-11.

In general, vitamin E has also a modulating effect on the immune system12.

The metabolic fate of the individual tocopherols and tocotrienols in the body is very different, which may influence their respective activities in the body. In general, plasma and tissues are enriched in alpha-tocopherol due to the activity of the hepatic alpha-tocopherol transfer protein2,8,13. Hence, there is a concern that alpha-tocopherol supplementation might deplete the body of other vitamin E forms like gamma-tocopherol and tocotrienols3,14.

Prevalence of use

The use of vitamin E supplements is widespread among cancer patients and longer-term survivors, with 20-50% of the patients using supplements of the vitamin15.

Legal issues

In many countries, vitamin E is available as over-the-counter supplement.

Cost(s) and expenditures

Vitamin E supplements are very inexpensive, costing around 10 euro cent or dollar cent for 400 IU.

Does it work?

No clinical trials using vitamin E monotherapy as an anticancer treatment have been published.

The available peer-reviewed literature describes the use of vitamin E as a component of multivitamin regimens or mixtures of micronutrients, in combination with non-cancer drugs, or as an adjunct to conventional chemotherapy or radiation. Only the peer-reviewed literature describing studies measuring the isolated contribution of vitamin E in such combination therapies have been considered. Please see table 1 for a description of studies.

Cancer treatment

In a phase I clinical trial in 12 patients with incurable malignancies, supplementation of chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil + leucovorin) with oral alpha-tocopherol did not increase its anticancer effect when compared with historical data16. Addition of maximal therapeutic doses of alpha-tocopherol to chemotherapy did not increase the side effects of the chemotherapy itself, again when compared with historical data.

In a non-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial, in 240 women with early breast cancer, adjuvant palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction did not decrease breast-cancer-specific mortality or breast cancer recurrence as compared to tamoxifen alone17. (See also table 1.)

Reduction of adverse effects

A number of studies describe the addition of vitamin E supplements to conventional anticancer therapies in an effort to reduce its adverse effects. The studies are described in table 1.

Oral all-rac-alpha-tocopherol supplementation did not protect against radiation-related adverse events nor did the compound have an effect on quality of life in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 248 head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy18-20. In a randomized, controlled study of 60 patients with oral cancer it was found that oral alpha-tocopherol may protect cell membranes from radiation damage21. In 62 endometrial and cervical cancer patients, topical alpha-tocopherol acetate was found to reduce the acute adverse effects of radiotherapy on the vagina22.

Several studies, including paediatric studies, found indications that topical vitamin E supplementation might prevent oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 18 patients treated with chemotherapy for various types of malignancy, topical vitamin E oil was more effective in resolving oral lesions than was placebo23. In a randomized, placebo-controlled study in 19 acute myeloid leukaemia patients, topical all-rac-alpha-tocopherol, in addition to chemotherapy, prevented mucositis especially during induction therapy24. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled in 54 head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, found prevention of oral mucositis by topical all-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate25. In children, similar findings were reported. In a randomized study in 80 children treated with chemotherapy, topical vitamin E was found to be an effective treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis, while oral vitamin E was not effective26. A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study in 72 chemotherapy-treated children with haematological malignancies found topical tocopherol acetate to be an effective treatment of oral mucositis27. However, series of N-of-1, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in 16 children treated with doxorubicin-containing regimens did not find reduction of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis by topical all-rac-alpha-tocopherol28.

Two studies were performed to assess the effect of vitamin E on radiation-induced cutaneous damage: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 24 patients testing oral alpha-tocopherol29, and a controlled study in 100 breast cancer patients testing topical vitamin E30. In combination with pentoxifylline, a drug improving blood flow through peripheral blood vessels, oral vitamin E supplementation was found to reduce radiation-induced fibrosis, but vitamin E alone had no effect.

In a randomized, controlled study in 89 oral cavity cancer patients31, and in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled in 36 patients with thyroid cancer32, oral alpha-tocopherol and oral vitamin E, respectively, were found to protect salivary glands against radiation-induced dysfunctions.

In four randomized, controlled or placebo-controlled clinical studies including 47, 31, 30, and 32 cancer patients respectively treated with cisplatin and/or paclitaxel, alpha-tocopherol acetate supplementation reduced the incidence and severity of chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity33-36. This finding was confirmed in a bigger randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 108 cancer patients treated with cisplatin37. However, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 207 cancer patients treated with taxanes or platinum compounds38, and in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 34 patients with colorectal and gastric cancer treated with oxaliplatin-based regimens39, oral all-rac-alpha-tocopherol and oral vitamin E, respectively, were not found to reduce incidence and severity of chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity.

Supplementation with oral vitamin E or oral alpha-tocopherol, respectively, did not protect against cardiotoxicity caused by doxorubicin in a randomized controlled study in 63 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia40, and in an uncontrolled trial in 21 patients with metastatic breast cancer41.

In three uncontrolled trials, in 5 and 32 breast cancer patients, and in 14 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively, oral vitamin E supplementation was beneficial to the resolution of hand-foot skin syndrome related to sorafenib or capecitabine therapy42-44. These results are preliminary at best.

Preliminary findings from two uncontrolled studies in 16 and 20 patients with different types of solid tumours45,47, and from one controlled study in 37 breast cancer patients46, of oral all-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate in the prevention of doxorubicin-induced alopecia, suggest that it is not effective for this condition.

Is it safe?

Adverse events

Vitamin E is considered to have a very low toxicity, and is generally well-tolerated5. The vitamin is not mutagenic, teratogenic nor carcinogenic48. Humans show few side effects following supplemental doses below 2,100 mg of alpha-tocopherol per day for a few weeks to a few months. The effects of life-long exposure to high doses of alpha-tocopherol supplements are unknown5.

In vitro, alpha-tocopherol was found to inhibit platelet aggregation49. In the ATBC cancer prevention study, a higher mortality due to haemorrhagic stroke was found in the all-rac-alpha-tocopherol treatment group50. In adults, high-dose alpha-tocopherol supplementation (1,000 IU per day) antagonized vitamin K, which is a crucial vitamin in clotting51. A population study showed that vitamin E supplementation (of 400 IU per day or more) was associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality in people with a history of severe cardiovascular disease52. In conclusion, vitamin E can affect bleeding and carries the risk of haemorrhagic stroke, and special consideration should therefore be given to cardiovascular disease patients or individuals taking nitrates or the anticoagulant warfarin, and to those with vitamin-K-related clotting disorders5.

In a meta-analysis of 19 clinical trials (9 tested vitamin E alone) with a total of 135,967 participants, it was found that daily supplementation of more than 400 IU may increase all-cause mortality, an effect which was dose-dependent53. Hence, non-healthy patients should not take daily doses of 400 IU or higher.

Vitamin E might have the potential to increase the risk of second primary cancers, and to increase the all-cause mortality in patients with head and neck cancer18-20.

Little information is available on the adverse events of other forms of vitamin E5.


Special consideration should be given when high doses of vitamin E are administered to individuals with cardiovascular disease, taking anticoagulant therapy (e.g., warfarin) or vitamin-K-related clotting disorders, as high doses of alpha-tocopherol may increase the bleeding tendency5.

Non-healthy individuals should not take daily doses of 400IU or higher53.


As vitamin E has antioxidant properties, a negative effect on the anticancer activity of therapies generating increased reactive oxygen species, e.g. radiation and some chemotherapeutics, is conceivable54.

Little research has investigated the influence of vitamin E on the activity of chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation. In most of the few studies performed in vitro and in tumor-bearing mice, no negative effect and even an enhancement of the anticancer effect of chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation was observed9,55-57. However, one in vitro study showed that alpha-tocopherol inhibited the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of different chemotherapeutic agents belonging to the class of protein kinase inhibitors58. In cancer patients, no evidence was found for a negative effect of vitamin E on chemotherapeutic treatment outcome59,60

  1. Kline K, Lawson KA, Yu W, Sanders BG. Vitamin E and cancer. Vitam. Horm. 2007;76:435-461.
  2. Brigelius-Flohé R, Traber MG. Vitamin E: function and metabolism. FASEB J. 1999 Jul;13(10):1145-1155.
  3. Sylvester PW, Shah SJ. Mechanisms mediating the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of vitamin E in mammary cancer cells. Front. Biosci. 2005 January 1;10:699-709.
  4. Fleshner NE. Vitamin E and prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am. 2002 February;29(1):107-113.
  5. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.
  6. Brigelius-Flohé R, Kelly FJ, Salonen JT, Neuzil J, Zingg JM, Azzi A. The European perspective on vitamin E: current knowledge and future research. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2002 October;76(4):703-716.
  7. Evans HM, Bishop KS. On the existence of a hitherto unrecognized dietary factor essential for reproduction. Science. 1922 December;56(1458):650-651.
  8. Herrera E, Barbas C. Vitamin E: action, metabolism and perspectives. J. Physiol. Biochem. 2001 March;57(2):43-56.
  9. Prasad KN, Kumar B, Yan XD, Hanson AJ, Cole WC. Alpha-tocopheryl succinate, the most effective form of vitamin E for adjuvant cancer treatment: a review. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 2003 April;22(2):108-117.
  10. Neuzil J. Vitamin E succinate and cancer treatment: a vitamin E prototype for selective antitumour activity. Br. J. Cancer. 2003 November 17;89(10):1822-1826.
  11. Miyazawa T, Shibata A, Sookwong P, Kawakami Y, Eitsuka T, Asai A, Oikawa S, Nakagawa K. Antiangiogenic and anticancer potential of unsaturated vitamin E (tocotrienol). J Nutr Biochem. 2009 February;20(2):79-86.
  12. Das S. Vitamin E in the genesis and prevention of cancer. A review. Acta Oncol. 1994;33(6):615-619.
  13. Kayden HJ, Traber MG. Absorption, lipoprotein transport, and regulation of plasma concentrations of vitamin E in humans. J. Lipid Res. 1993 March;34(3):343-358.
  14. Hensley K, Benaksas EJ, Bolli R, Comp P, Grammas P, Hamdheydari L, Mou S, Pye QN, Stoddard MF, Wallis G, Williamson KS, West M, Wechter WJ, Floyd RA. New perspectives on vitamin E: gamma-tocopherol and carboxyelthylhydroxychroman metabolites in biology and medicine. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2004 Jan 1;36(1):1-15.
  15. Velicer CM, Ulrich CM. Vitamin and mineral supplement use among US adults after cancer diagnosis: a systematic review. J. Clin. Oncol. 2008 February 1;26(4):665-673.
  16. Blanke CD, Stipanov M, Morrow J, Rothenberg M, Chinery R, Shyr Y, Coffey R, Johnson DH, Leach SD, Beauchamp RD. A phase I study of vitamin E, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for advanced malignancies. Invest. New Drugs. 2001;19(1):21-27.
  17. Nesaretnam K, Selvaduray KR, Abdul Razak G, Veerasenan SD, Gomez PA. Effectiveness of tocotrienol-rich fraction combined with tamoxifen in the management of women with early breast cancer: a pilot clinical trial. Breast Cancer Res. 2010;12(5):R81. doi: 10.1186/bcr2726. Epub 2010 Oct 8.
  18. Bairati I, Meyer F, Gélinas M, Fortin A, Nabid A, Brochet F, Mercier JP, Têtu B, Harel F, Abdous B, Vigneault E, Vass S, Del Vecchio P, Roy J. Randomized trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent acute adverse effects of radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. J. Clin. Oncol. 2005a August 20;23(24):5805-5813.
  19. Bairati I, Meyer F, Gélinas M, Fortin A, Nabid A, Brochet F, Mercier JP, Têtu B, Harel F, Mâsse B, Vigneault E, Vass S, del Vecchio P, Roy J. A randomized trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent second primary cancers in head and neck cancer patients. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2005b April 6;97(7):481-488.
  20. Bairati I, Meyer F, Jobin E, Gélinas M, Fortin A, Nabid A, Brochet F, Têtu B. Antioxidant vitamins supplementation and mortality: a randomized trial in head and neck cancer patients. Int. J. Cancer. 2006 November 1;119(9):2221-2224.
  21. Chitra S, Shyamaladevi CS. Modulatory action of α-tocopherol on erythrocyte membrane adenosine triphosphatase against radiation damage in oral cancer. J Membr Biol. 2011 Mar;240(2):83-8.
  22. Galuppi A, Perrone AM, La Macchia M, Santini D, Medoro S, Maccarini LR, Strada I, Pozzati F, Rossi M, De Iaco P. Local α-tocopherol for acute and short-term vaginal toxicity prevention in patients treated with radiotherapy for gynecologic tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2011 Dec;21(9):1708-11.
  23. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, Krasnow SH, Anderson A, Cohen MH. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am. J. Med. 1992 May;92(5):481-484.
  24. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, Sauvage C, Hazebroucq G, Dreyfus F. [Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents] Ann. Med. Interne (Paris). 1994;145(6):405-408.
  25. Ferreira PR, Fleck JF, Diehl A, Barletta D, Braga-Filho A, Barletta A, Ilha L. Protective effect of alpha-tocopherol in head and neck cancer radiation-induced mucositis: a double-blind randomized trial. Head Neck. 2004 April;26(4):313-321.
  26. El-Housseiny AA, Saleh SM, El-Masry AA, Allam AA. The effectiveness of vitamin "E" in the treatment of oral mucositis in children receiving chemotherapy. J. Clin. Pediatr. Dent. 2007 Spring;31(3):167-170.
  27. Khurana H, Pandey RK, Saksena AK, Kumar A. An evaluation of Vitamin E and Pycnogenol in children suffering from oral mucositis during cancer chemotherapy. Oral Dis. 2013 Jul;19(5):456-64.
  28. Sung L, Tomlinson GA, Greenberg ML, Koren G, Judd P, Ota S, Feldman BM. Serial controlled N-of-1 trials of topical vitamin E as prophylaxis for chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in paediatric patients. Eur. J. Cancer. 2007 May;43(8):1269-1275.
  29. Delanian S, Porcher R, Balla-Mekias S, Lefaix JL. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of combined pentoxifylline and tocopherol for regression of superficial radiation-induced fibrosis. J. Clin. Oncol. 2003 July 1;21(13):2545-2550.
  30. Ravo V, Calvanese MG, Di Franco R, Crisci V, Murino P, Manzo R, Morra A, Cammarota F, Muto P. Prevention of cutaneous damages induced by radiotherapy in breast cancer: an institutional experience. Tumori. 2011 Nov-Dec;97(6):732-736.
  31. Chitra S, Shyamala Devi CS. Effects of radiation and alpha-tocopherol on saliva flow rate, amylase activity, total protein and electrolyte levels in oral cavity cancer. Indian J Dent Res. 2008 Jul-Sep;19(3):213-8.
  32. Fallahi B, Beiki D, Abedi SM, Saghari M, Fard-Esfahani A, Akhzari F, Mokarami B, Eftekhari M. Does vitamin E protect salivary glands from I-131 radiation damage in patients with thyroid cancer? Nucl Med Commun. 2013 Aug;34(8):777-86.
  33. Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, Maresca V, Pacetti U, Del Monte G, Biroccio A, Leonetti C, Jandolo B, Cognetti F, Bove L. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J. Clin. Oncol. 2003 Mar 1;21(5):927-931.
  34. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, Ellul J, Papapetropoulos S, Katsoulas G, Iconomou G, Kalofonos HP. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 2005 January 11;64(1):26-31.
  35. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, Iconomou G, Papapetropoulos S, Polychronopoulos P, Kalofonos HP. A randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of vitamin E supplementation for protection against cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy: final results. Support Care Cancer. 2006a November;14(11):1134-1140.
  36. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, Iconomou G, Papapetropoulos S, Polychronopoulos P, Kalofonos HP. Preventing paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy: a phase II trial of vitamin E supplementation. J. Pain Symptom Manage. 2006b September;32(3):237-244.
  37. Pace A, Giannarelli D, Galiè E, Savarese A, Carpano S, Della Giulia M, Pozzi A, Silvani A, Gaviani P, Scaioli V, Jandolo B, Bove L, Cognetti F. Vitamin E neuroprotection for cisplatin neuropathy: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology. 2010 Mar 2;74(9):762-766.
  38. Kottschade LA, Sloan JA, Mazurczak MA, Johnson DB, Murphy BP, Rowland KM, Smith DA, Berg AR, Stella PJ, Loprinzi CL. The use of vitamin E for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: results of a randomized phase III clinical trial. Support Care Cancer. 2011 Nov;19(11):1769-1777.
  39. de Afonseca SO, Cruz FM, de Iracema Gomes Cubero D, Lera AT, Schindler F, Okawara M, Souza LF, Rodrigues NP, del Giglio A. Vitamin E for prevention of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy: a pilot randomized clinical trial. Sao Paulo Med J. 2013;131(1):35-8.
  40. Whittaker JA, Al-Ismail SA. Effect of digoxin and vitamin E in preventing cardiac damage caused by doxorubicin in acute myeloid leukaemia. Br. Med. J. (Clin. Res. Ed.). 1984 January;288(6413):283-284.
  41. Legha SS, Wang YM, Mackay B, Ewer M, Hortobagyi GN, Benjamin RS, Ali MK. Clinical and pharmacologic investigation of the effects of alpha-tocopherol on adriamycin cardiotoxicity. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1982;393:411-418.
  42. Kara IO, Sahin B, Erkisi M. Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia due to docetaxel-capecitabine therapy is treated with vitamin E without dose reduction. Breast. 2006 Jun;15(3):414-24.
  43. Yamamoto D, Yamamoto C, Iwase S, Kuroda Y, Odagiri H, Nagumo Y. Efficacy of Vitamin E Treatment for Hand-Foot Syndrome in Patients Receiving Capecitabine. Breast Care (Basel). 2010;5(6):415-416.
  44. Bozkurt Duman B, Kara B, Oguz Kara I, Demiryurek H, Aksungur E. Hand-foot syndrome due to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma treated with vitamin E without dose modification; a preliminary clinical study. J BUON. 2011 Oct-Dec;16(4):759-64.
  45. Wood LA. Possible prevention of adriamycin-induced alopecia by tocopherol. N. Engl. J. Med. 1985 April 18;312(16):1060.
  46. Martin-Jimenez M, Diaz-Rubio E, Gonzalez Larriba JL, Sangro B. Failure of high-dose tocopherol to prevent alopecia induced by doxorubicin. N. Engl. J. Med. 1986 October 2;315(14):894-895.
  47. Perez JE, Macchiavelli M, Leone BA, Romero A, Rabinovich MG, Goldar D, Vallejo C. High-dose alpha-tocopherol as a preventive of doxorubicin-induced alopecia. Cancer Treat. Rep. 1986 October;70(10):1213-1214.
  48. Kappus H, Diplock AT. Tolerance and safety of vitamin E: a toxicological position report. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1992;13(1):55-74.
  49. Steiner M. Influence of vitamin E on platelet function in humans. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 1991 October;10(5):466-473.
  50. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N. Engl. J. Med. 1994 Apr 14;330(15):1029-1035.
  51. Booth SL, Golly I, Sacheck JM, Roubenoff R, Dallal GE, Hamada K, Blumberg JB. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on vitamin K status in adults with normal coagulation status. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):143-8.
  52. Hayden KM, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Wengreen HJ, Zandi PP, Lyketsos CG, Breitner JC; Cache County Investigators. Risk of mortality with vitamin E supplements: the Cache County study. Am J Med. 2007 Feb;120(2):180-4.
  53. Miller ER 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann. Intern. Med. 2005 January;142(1):37-46.
  54. Seifried HE, McDonald SS, Anderson DE, Greenwald P, Milner JA. The antioxidant conundrum in cancer. Cancer Res. 2003 Aug 1;63(15):4295-8.
  55. Lamson DW, Brignall MS. Antioxidants in cancer therapy; their actions and interactions with oncologic therapies. Altern. Med. Rev. 1999 October;4(5):304-329.
  56. D'Incalci M, Steward WP, Gescher AJ. Modulation of response to cancer chemotherapeutic agents by diet constituents: is the available evidence sufficiently robust for rational advice for patients? Cancer Treat. Rev. 2007 May;33(3):223-229.
  57. Sylvester PW, Vikram BW, Sunitha VB, Amit BS, Nehad MA, Mohamed RA. Tocotrienol combination therapy results in synergistic anticancer response. Frontiers in Bioscience 2011;17:3183-3195.
  58. Pédeboscq S, Rey C, Petit M, Harpey C, De Giorgi F, Ichas F, Lartigue L. Non-antioxidant properties of α-tocopherol reduce the anticancer activity of several protein kinase inhibitors in vitro. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36811.
  59. Moss RW. Do antioxidants interfere with radiation therapy for cancer? Integr. Cancer Ther. 2007 September;6(3):281-292.
  60. Sung L, Greenberg ML, Koren G, Tomlinson GA, Tong A, Malkin D, Feldman BM. Vitamin E: the evidence for multiple roles in cancer. Nutr. Cancer. 2003;46(1):1-14.

CAM Cancer is hosted by NAFKAM

Norway's National Research Center in Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Read more about NAFKAM

Other websites from NAFKAM: