Acupuncture for chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting
Abstract and key points
- The Pericardium 6 (P6) point is stimulated either with an acupuncture needle (acupuncture), or by a wristband or finger pressure (acupressure).
- Acupuncture and acupressure of P6 were shown to reduce some aspects of chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting when given in conjunction with standard antiemetic treatments. More recent trials have produced mixed results so that overall effectiveness is currently unclear.
- Trials of other points are too limited to draw any conclusions on effectiveness.
- Serious complications of acupuncture exist but are probably very rare.
Acupuncture or acupressure stimulation of the Pericardium 6 (P6) acupoint is a popular treatment for nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) claims that chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are due to the reversal of the gastrointestinal flow of "qi" (flow of energy). Stimulation of P6 is claimed to cause the qi to flow in the right (downward) direction. The antiemetic effect is likely mediated via the central opioid pathway.
Two systematic reviews, as well as one narrative review reported that stimulation of acupoints (mainly P6) reduced some aspects of nausea and/or vomiting associated with chemotherapy when given in conjunction with standard antiemetic treatments. Subsequent reviews have reported similar findings but the limitations in the design of these reviews and in that of the original trials prevents firm conclusions on effectiveness. Similarly, RCTs published following the most recent review have reported mixed findings.
Mild adverse effects, e.g. pain or bleeding at the site of acupuncture can be expected in about 10% of all cases, and serious complications, such as pneumothorax and hepatitis, seem to be very rare.
CitationKaren Pilkington, Vinjar Fønnebø, CAM-Cancer Consortium. Acupuncture for chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting [online document]. http://cam-cancer.org/The-Summaries/Mind-body-interventions/Acupuncture-for-chemotherapy-associated-nausea-and-vomiting. April 27, 2016.
Most recent update and revision in March 2016 by Karen Pilkington.
Fully revised and updated in August 2013 by Vinjar Fønnebø.
Fully revised and updated in February 2011 by Vinjar Fønnebø.
Fully revised and updated in June 2009 by Vinjar Fønnebø.
Summary first published in November 2005, authored by Vinjar Fønnebø.
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